Historic Redlining vs. Redlining Today
Economic Justice vs. Economic Disparities for Black Businesses and Communities
How do we legally secure our rights so we can finally build healthy and balanced communities?
"With equal rights, our communities can thrive"
Brian K. Rice
What is Systemic Discrimination definition? Black's Law dictionary - "(1969) An ingrained culture that perpetuates discriminatory policies and attitudes toward certain classes of people within society or a particular industry, profession, company, or geographic location."
I, Brian K. Rice, am a huge advocate that everyone in America, especially those who have historically and repeatedly had their rights breached, should purchase a Black's law dictionary. The definition of our rights and how the courts define our rights are based on the words defined Black's law dictionary. I think a traditional dictionary is great for grammar, but Black's law dictionary and other legal dictionaries is your guide for your rights.
What is Systemic Racism definition or Structural Racism definition or meaning? Systemic racism and structural racism are used interchangeably. Racism which is the root word is based on a different treatment of someone because their race is different. Racism is often based on unfair treatment of a race because the race is different. Systemic racism or structural racism meaning is based on a system that may be based on a system of laws, policies, customs or practices that are based on racism where at least one race is systemically treated unfairly.
What is Systemic Injustice definition or Systemic Inequality definition? Systemic Injustice and Systemic Inequality occur when an unjust or unequal act is placed in a system, and the unjust or unequal act is embedded in laws, policies, practices, or customs.
In the book Inclusive Systemic Economic Injustice, as Brian K. Rice fight for his economic rights in an underserved black community, he describes Systemic Injustice in America as: “Systemic Injustice manifests when the ideals of the U.S. Constitution and laws of this country and the ideals of human rights are consciously disregarded at one or several layers of government."
Get your copy of "Inclusive Systemic Economic Injustice: Public Corruption, Exclusion and Oppression in my Hometown" on Amazon Today (click here). Brian breaks down historic redlining, redlining today, Black-on-Black discrimination, Systemic Discrimination, Affirmative Action for Black Small Businesses and more. Get your copy today.
What is Black on Black discrimination vs Systemic Racism? Race on Race discrimination could be placed on any race. I chose Black on Back discrimination because I found myself trying to understand if I could sue a black person for racism against another black person. This is an interesting debate as I believe the best way to end the argument is to sue based on discrimination and unfair treatment which is regardless of race. Racism, on the other hand, definition is based on the unfair treatment of another race, so that would throw out the argument if we are only speaking about the person based on racism. Now, if the black person who committed the act of racism while representing a corporation, the corporation doesn't have a color, and the corporation is defined as a person in court, so then we can sue.
What is Economic Justice definition and how is it viewed under human rights and in courts? When an unjust or unequal act creates a barrier to economic opportunity then we have Economic Injustice. Economic Justice is based on equal and just opportunity for all. Economic Justice must remove the injustice, inequality, unfair treatment for their to be justice.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) "Article 22 asserts that economic, social and cultural rights are indispensable for human dignity and development of the human personality."
In civil court, in order to secure economic justice, their must be a remedy to compensate the injured for all the damages incurred. So, we can't just say a person is has opportunity today and ignore all the damages that occurred previously. In the court rooms of the criminal justice system, their must be a penalty to the person or entity when an act is done intentionally. This is were white collar crimes tend to come in to play.
What is Economic Liberty definition? Economic Equality and Economic Liberty are used interchangeably. Economic Liberty and Economic Equality is the act of removing all economic barriers of inequality, injustice, unequal, and that creates unfair treatment to another.
What is redlining definition? Blacks Law Dictionary: "(1973) 1. Credit discrimination (usually unlawful discrimination) by an institution that refuses to provide loans or insurance on properties in areas that are considered to be poor financial risks or to the people who live in those areas."
What is historic redlining in America?
The term redlining derived from the use of unlawful maps that were used lawfully by banks, realtors, and the federal government to discriminate based on race. Redlining maps were color coded with Green or A being described as "Best" which consisted of U.S.-born, upper or middle-class neighborhoods where "professional men" lived. Areas highlighted in Blue or B were listed as "still desirable" which consist of mostly or nearly all white U.S. born with few immigrants or persons of color. Yello or C highlighted areas were labeled "definitely declining" where areas were bordering black neighborhoods and had more immigrants and were listed as working class people. Yellow or C too easily could have "undesirable populations" moving in. Red or D were listed as "Hazardous" where neighborhoods had a high Black population but could also have a high Mexican or Asian or other group. Loans were denied based on the closer the home was to the red characteristics. (Below is a 1943 redlining map for the City of Birmingham, AL and below is a list of American cities that openly practiced redlining.
Every medium size to major city in the U.S. used redlining maps to distribute federal backed mortgages. Cities included: Chicago, Seattle, Tacoma, Portland, Spokane, Omaha, Denver, Pueblo, Salt Lake City, Birmingham, Jackson, Knoxville, Chattanooga, New Orleans, D.C., Houston, Dallas, Galveston, St. Antonio, Waco, Beaumont, Port Arthur, Ogden, Minneapolis, Duluth, Saginaw, St. Paul, St. Louis, East St Louis, Mobile, Tulsa, San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Oakland, Phoenix, El Paso, Ft. Worth, Amarillo, St Petersburg, Miami, Tampa, Jacksonville, Savannah, Norfolk, Durham, Baltimore, Little Rock, Austin, Atlanta, Charlotte, Greensboro, Asheville, Columbia, Augusta, Montgomery, Pittsburgh, Nashville, Knoxville, Memphis, Macon, Shreveport, Huntington, Louisville, Peoria, Des Moines, Waterloo, Lansing, Battle Creek, Kalamazoo, Muskegon, Pontiac, Ft Wayne, Racine, Kenosha, Detroit, Rochester, Milwaukee, South Bend, Toledo, Columbus, Dayton, Davenport, Dubque, Madison, Oshkosh, Covington, Indianapolis, Terre Haute, Springfield, Decatur, Aurora, Joilet, Rockford, Fort Wayne, Muncie, Lima, Akron, Canton, Wheeling, Charleston, Portsmouth, Wilkes-Barre, Elmira, Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Altoona, New Castle, Youngstown, Erie, Lorain, Lynchburg, Roanoke, Kansas City, Haverhill, Manchester, Boroughs of NY, Greater Boston, Brockton, Philadelphia, Providence Camden, New Haven Hartford, Schenectady, Utica, York, Chester, Newport News, Atlantic City, Syracuse, Waterbury, Poughkeepsie, Trenton, New Britain, Bethlehem, Brooklyn, Queens, Staten Island, and many I didn’t list.
Redlining maps were first used by the Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) and Federal Housing Administration (FHA) in 1934. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the New Deal Legislation in 1933 and the legislation was extended and lasted through 1968 with the use of redlining maps. On September 20, 2020, the U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs presented the Minority Staff Report titled ‘TURNING BACK THE CLOCK - stated “FROM 1934 TO 1968, 98 PERCENT OF FHA-BACKED LOANS WERE MADE TO WHITE APPLICANTS”.
Due to Jim Crow racial zoning, blacks were only allowed to live where the city allowed them to live. This forced professional blacks and working class blacks, regardless of income, to live in areas defined as Red or D or Hazardous as highlighted on redlining maps. Due to this, black families could not get loans for 34 years, while white families received over 98 percent of federally backed loans for their homes. America's Racial Wealth Gap is directly related to the 34 years of unlawful discrimination.
Brian K. Rice writes about examples of redlining and the racial wealth and inequality linked to the history of redlining that affects us today in Inclusive Systemic Economic Injustice: "Think about those black citizens who could read and afford a newspaper with a little bit of consciousness when they saw $4.7 billion-plus in loans that had been approved in 1934 backed by the federal government take place just months after the program started. $4.7 billion in 1934 would be over $107 billion in today’s money. Black citizens are watching with no practicing courtroom attorneys from their community in Alabama while the 3rd greatest transfer of wealth this country has created occurs." Redlining forced blacks to live next to heavy polluting plants, railroad tracks, flood zones and other undesirable areas. Redlining crippled wealth creation for black families as little to no home equity is passed down or used for other investments. Below is a modern day redlining today that took place originally in 2019 and has since been covered up by state and federal agencies. It was when Brian K. Rice received this unconscionable, unfair appraisal that he knew the practice of denying Black property owners their equity was much more widespread nationwide than with him in Birmingham, AL.
What is redlining today and what are the solutions to redlining today? Redlining is not just a practice from the past. The U.S Department of Justice launched the Combatting Redlining Initiative on October 22nd, 2021 to address modern-day redlining. "Redlining is an illegal practice in which lenders avoid providing services to individuals living in communities of color because of the race or national origin of the people who live in those communities. The new Initiative represents the department’s most aggressive and coordinated enforcement effort to address redlining, which is prohibited by the Fair Housing Act and the Equal Credit Opportunity Act." “Lending discrimination runs counter to fundamental promises of our economic system,” said Attorney General Merrick B. Garland. “When people are denied credit simply because of their race or national origin, their ability to share in our nation’s prosperity is all but eliminated. One of the first DOJ federal lawsuits took place based on unlawful bank discrimination "From 2014 to 2018, Trustmark engaged in unlawful redlining in Memphis by avoiding predominantly Black and Hispanic neighborhoods because of the race, color, and national origin of the people living in, or seeking credit for properties in, those neighborhoods." (Source: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-announces-new-initiative-combat-redlining )
What is reverse redlining definition? Reverse redlining may take place in the form of excessive taxes, higher interest rates, subprime mortgages, and other predatory financial practices that create unfair treatment typically based on a protected class. Brian K. Rice was a triple victim of redlining today. In Downtown Ensnley in the commercial district that is majority owned by African Americans, it was discovered that the business district had the highest increases in property taxes in the city. Owners were paying $1193 one year and then the next year they were paying over $7500. The Jefferson County Board of Equalizations increased property taxes for the mom and pop owners up to 535% increase while the largest corporation in the area received on a 15% increase. Reverse redlining has been the focus of several major Department of Justice lawsuits across the country where banks charged black applicants much higher interest rates based on race.
The Department of Justice state that Reverse Redlining is "The practice of targeting minority communities for predatory lending is called 'reverse redlining.'" "It is the United States' view that "reverse redlining" can violate the Fair Housing Act and the Equal Credit Protection Act." As used by Congress and district courts, "reverse redlining" refers to "the practice of targeting residents in certain geographic areas for credit on unfair terms." Newton v. United Companies Fin. Corp., 24 F. Supp.2d 444, 455 (E.D. Pa. 1998); accord Williams v. Gelt Fin. Corp., 237 B.R. 590, 594 (E.D. Penn. 1999) ("reverse redlining" is the practice of "targeting of persons for 'credit on unfair terms' based on their income, race, or ethnicity") (quoting S. Rep. No. 103-169, at 21 (1993)). In contrast to "redlining," which "is the practice of denying the extension of credit to specific geographic areas due to the income, race, or ethnicity of its residents," "[r]everse redlining is the practice of extending credit on unfair terms to those same communities." United Companies Lending Corp. v. Sargeant, 20 F. Supp.2d 192, 203 n.5 (D. Mass. 1998) (citing S. Rep. No. 103-169, at 21 (1993)). (Source: https://www.justice.gov/crt/housing-and-civil-enforcement-cases-documents-231#:~:text=As%20used%20by%20Congress%20and,United%20Companies%20Fin. )
What is Gentrification's definition? Housing of Urban Development: "Gentrification is a form of neighborhood change that occurs when higher-income groups move into low-income areas, potentially altering the cultural and financial landscape of the original neighborhood." (Source: https://www.huduser.gov/portal/sites/default/files/pdf/displacementreport.pdf )
Is Gentrification Good or Bad? First, any race or people of the same race can lead to gentrification. The concern is when the low-income group who is directly affected by gentrification has been historically faced with systemic discrimination and economic inequality that benefit the new group who are the gentrifiers. The other concern is when the gentrifiers, whether returning in the form of regentrification, cause new economic barriers in the form of increased taxes and new policies or laws that harm the existing residence and increase the risk of those residents losing their property and culture. Gentrification can be good if there is an appropriate plan in place to benefit the lower-income group that has always been in the neighborhood. Gentrification is good for the city tax base, but it harms the residents who is lower income and the risk of unaffordable taxes can cause over-taxation.
Must read books on systemic racism, systemic discrimination, economic inequality, redlining, reverse redlining, real estate injustice, banking injustice, unfair appraisals related to Black people and poverty in America?
Know Your Price: Valuing Black Lives and Property in America’s Black Cities by Andre Perry (Published 2020).
How to Kill a City: Gentrification, Inequality, and the Fight for the Neighborhood by PE Moskowitz (Published 2017).
The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America by Richard Rothstein (Published 2017).
The Color of Money: Black Banks and the Racial Wealth Gap by Mehrsa Baradaran (Published 2017).
Brian K. Rice is an active real-life case study for commercial economic justice, redlining, reverse redlining, and taxation without representation in your typical underserved black community. Brian K. Rice is actively challenging the 10-Year Tax Fraud scheme to deprive his community of federally backed resources based on federal incentive zoning under Federal Opportunity Zones, which has overwhelmingly benefited affluent and further deprived distressed communities. Brian's pastime outside of developing properties in underserved communities is studying systemic racism and economic injustice in Black communities. Brian K. Rice is a community-driven developer who brings experiences in law and commercial development that go beyond the classroom with first-hand experiences. Brian's experiences challenge urban planners, African American studies professors / students, city planners, attorneys, civil rights groups, public officials, and community development corporations to go further into addressing modern-day redlining as it affects our communities now and for the next several generations. Redlining today is covert through various forms of fraud, but redlining during the Jim Crow era was Overt through known unlawful discrimination.
Invite Brian K. Rice to your next conversation on economic injustice and systemic discrimination today as a social justice and economic justice keynote speaker. You may email him at email@example.com
"With equal rights, our communities can thrive" Brian K. Rice. The author of Inclusive Systemic Economic Injustice: Corruption, Exclusion & Oppression in My Hometown: How White and Black Public Officials Injure Black Communities, Today